A 1950 copy of the quetzalāpanecayōtl in the museo nacional de antropologia e historia in mexico city. Photo: thomas ledl. License: cc by-sa 4.0
Whether this magnificent headdress is the crown of moctezuma ii. Acts, is controversial
Mexican president andres manuel lopez obrador has announced via twitter that he has given his wife beatriz gutierrez muller an errand request for her visit to vienna: the quetzalāpanecayōtl, a magnificent headdress that will be on display at the vienna folk art museum.
Golden beak ""?
Even if it is often referred to as "moctezuma’s crown" it is questionable whether the 116-centimeter-high and 175-centimeter-wide exhibition piece is actually a representative headdress of the aztec ruler, which the spanish adventurer hernan cortes had made on the 14th century. November 1519 and who, in the following month, had been granted the sovereignty of the spanish habsburg king and later german emperor charles v. Recognized. Cortes, who carried out his conquests against the will of the cuban governor diego velazquez de cuellar, sent numerous gifts from the aztec empire to his superior’s superior at the time, which may not have changed hands entirely of his own free will.
A historical list of these objects also mentions a headdress – but its description does not match the artifact exhibited in vienna made of gold scales, flamingo feathers, squirrel cuckoo feathers, xiuhtōtōtl feathers and quetzal feathers. A description from an estate list of the tyrolean archduke ferdinand, who died in 1596, fits much better. According to the current state of research, the headdress for his cabinet of curiosities belonged to the upper swabian count ulrich vi. From montfort in tettnang, germany. The only thing missing here is a golden beak, which could have originally been part of the quetzalāpanecayōtl until it was at some point "silvered" was.
In addition, the quetzalāpanecayōtl is not shaped like the classic aztec crown: the xiuhhuitzolli more closely resembles european soldier headdresses from the 18. Century and is set with turkis stones. In aztec pictographic writing, rulers can always be identified by this attribute. Therefore, many ancient americanists consider it more likely that the quetzalāpanecayōtl is the headdress of a high aztec cleric. Whether the u.S. Gave it up voluntarily and for an appropriate consideration may also be doubted.
Lopez obrador, who is not descended from nahua indians but from spaniards, estimates that the chances of a return or loan of the quetzalāpanecayōtl are not very rough, according to his own statements. After all, according to the president, the austrians had not even then awarded this trinket, "when they invaded us and imposed the so-called second mexican empire on us".
In vienna they see it in a similar way and refer, among other things, to expert opinions, according to which one cannot expose the fragile object to transport without risking damage. The headdress had also been damaged in austria, where vermin had attacked it to such an extent that numerous feathers had to be replaced in 1878. In the case of gold scales that had gone missing, people showed thrift at the time and replaced them with gilded bronze.
In addition to the headdress, the mexican president’s wife in europe also asked for the codex borgia and two other collections of documents in which pre-columbian mexicans describe their history, culture and religion in their own pictographic script. Most of these books were published in the 16. Century burned by missionaries. The ones that andres manuel lopez obrador now wants for an exhibition commemorating 500 years of the conquest of mexico are in the possession of the vatican, which beatriz gutierrez muller visited friday.